Asphalt deposits and seeps in the southern Gulf of Mexico
Dr. Chieh-Wei Hsu
The University of Bremen, Germany
The Campeche-Sigsbee salt province in the southern GoM is considered to be an analog to the salt province in the northern GoM, but there has been very little research conducted in this region. Based on the occurrence of natural oil slicks on the sea surface resolved by satellite images, previous studies suggested that there is a widespread distribution of oil seeps in the Campeche-Sigsbee salt province. However, there is still a lack of direct evidence for the presence and distribution of gas emissions. In addition to gas and oil seepage, Chapopote asphalt volcanism, a novel type of hydrocarbon seepage was first introduced in 2003. Since then, submarine asphalt deposits have attracted considerable research interest. This study aims to have a comprehensive understanding of the hydrocarbon seepage system and dynamics in the southern GoM. The objectives are to investigate the distribution of gas emissions and to understand the controlling factors on the distribution. Detailed investigations were carried out at Challenger Knoll and Mictlan Knoll to gain a better understanding of the diverse hydrocarbon seepage system including gas and oil emissions, as well as asphalt deposits. During research cruise M114 of R/V METEOR, a multidisciplinary approach was conducted, including hydroacoustic surveys (MBES from Ship-based and AUV), visual seafloor observations (ROV and towed vehicle), and sampling of gas bubbles. In summary, gas emissions are found in large numbers in the Campeche-Sigsbee salt province. Their distributions are controlled by the present geological structures. The case study in the Sigsbee Knolls suggests that the edges of flat-top knolls might provide an effective migration pathway for hydrocarbons. As there is no direct evidence for the presence of current oil seepage in the Sigsbee Knolls, we suggested that oil seepage occurs intermittently. Gas, oil seepage and asphalt volcanism are found to occur close together at the Mictlan Knoll, indicating that this diverse hydrocarbon seepage system might be a common phenomenon in the Campeche Knolls. This study shows the complex association between the dynamics of diverse hydrocarbon seepage and the geological controls in the southern GoM.