In 2003, the United States Department of Energy established the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program (RCSP). Seven were selected, representing different regions of the U.S. Developed in phases, the projects progressed through Phase I to Phase III with the goal of Phase I being characterization of storage prospects in each region, Phase 2 to develop small scale injections, and Phase 3 to develop commercial-scale projects that would represent a mass similar to what an industrial facility looking to offset emissions would inject. One of the seven partnerships was the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The “Early Test” was a part of Phase 3 with the goal to build confidence that large-volume injection and monitoring was possible.
Starting in 2008, more than 40 scientists from 25 institutions assembled to study a commercial field site in southeastern Mississippi, led by the Gulf Coast Carbon Center under a 10-year $38 million contract from the Department of Energy to conduct what became the first large-scale injection of carbon dioxide in the U.S. to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Scientists developed, validated, and improved state-of-the-art monitoring systems to track carbon dioxide more than 10,000 feet or 1 kilometer below the surface of the Earth. Operations concluded in January 2015 with 5,371,643 metric tons successfully injected and monitored for over 5 years from 2008 to 2014. These monitoring approaches are now developed commercially at the nation’s largest carbon capture and storage sites including the Air Products facility in Port Arthur, Texas and the Petro Nova project outside of Houston, and tested at sites around the world.
Results of this study provide a cautionary note to regulatory and accreditation users about the feasibility of obtaining unique and quantitative matches between fluid flow models and field measurements. The Cranfield field test is one of the largest datasets for experts to study carbon dioxide sequestration at the field scale. Developments included pressure monitoring of the above-zone monitoring interval, process-based soil-gas monitoring, deep application of electrical resistance tomography, demonstration of the stacked-storage concept, and also determining some limitations of 4-D seismic and groundwater surveillance.
This pilot project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy concluded in January 2015 with 5,371,643 metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) successfully contained, away from the atmosphere. That’s the greenhouse gas equivalent of more than 600 million (604,438,281) gallons of gasoline, the average gasoline consumption of a little over 2 million Americans each year.
This work was supported by the SECARB project, managed by the Southern States Energy Board and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, NETL, under contract number DE-FC26-05NT42590.
The GCCC-led SECARB projects at Cranfield have resulted in a number of accomplishments for the RCSP program:
- Monitored a large-volume injection (5 million metric tons CO2 stored).
- Monitored at a commercial EOR site.
- Monitored over a very long timeframe (2008–14).
- Provided information about the feasibility and limitations of common monitoring approaches such as 4D seismic surveillance and groundwater geochemical testing programs.
- Created highly collaborative opportunity for industry, national lab, U.S. Geological Survey, and academic interaction. Hosted many experiments within and outside of the RCSP, such as the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP), the Carbon Capture Project (CCP), GEO-SEQ, the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES), and other targeted projects.
- Provided dense data that can be used for capacity assessment.
- Published numerous results (see list of references below).
- Led the way toward the next phase of more commercially oriented monitoring.
In addition, significant R&D was undertaken as part of this study:
- The second geologic CO2 storage tests of cross-well electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for detection of CO2 substituting for brine were performed. (The first was the small shallow deployment at Ketzin, Germany.) The favorable outcome showed good sensitivity, even with significant noise from the instruments, and possible sensitivity to increases in saturation beyond the range of seismic detection.
- The second geologic CO2 storage tests of gravity (after the seafloor gravity measurement at Sleipner, North Sea) were performed. The wellbore instrument was able to detect and reasonably quantify CO2 substitution for brine. This work was done as part of CCP.
- Exsolution of methane from brine as a result of CO2 dissolution was observed.
- The complexities of interaction between reservoir heterogeneity and injection rate in the two-phase-flow field were documented. Efficiency of occupancy was dependent on injection rate.
- This project supported development and demonstration of the process-based soil
- gas method for attribution of the source of anomalies. This method is sensitive to very small (insignificant) fluxes. (See Natural Analog Studies Theme for more.)
- No microseismicity was detected from the injection. This work was done as part of the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).
Find more technical information about each of the project tasks, timeline, and accomplishments at: https://www.beg.utexas.edu/gccc/research/cranfield
Publications assessing data from SECARB Early Test
Alfi, Masoud, Vasco, D.W., Hosseini, S.A., Meckel, T.A., Hovorka, S.D., 2019. Validating compositional fluid flow simulations using 4D seismic interpretation and vice versa in the SECARB Early Test—A critical review. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 82, 162–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2019.01.003
Bakhshian, S., Hosseini, S.A., Shokri, N., 2019, Pore-scale characteristics of multiphase flow in heterogeneous porous media Using the lattice Boltzmann method. Sci. Rep. v. 9, Article number: 3377. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39741-x
Bakhshian, S., Hosseini, S.A., 2019, Pore–scale analysis of supercritical CO2-brine immiscible displacement under fractional-wettability conditions. Adv. Water Resour. V. 126, p. 96-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2019.02.008
Bakhshian, S., Hosseini, S.A., Lake, L.W., CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure of Tuscaloosa sandstone: Effect of anisotropy (Draft, Submitted)
Bakhshian, S., Hosseini, S.A., A Parallel Pore-scale Simulator for Multiphase Flow in 3D Digital Rock Images. 2019 Rice Oil & Gas HPC Conference.
Dashtian, H., Bakhshian, S., Hajirezaie, S., Nicot, J.P., Hosseini, S.A., 2019, Convection-diffusion-reaction of co2-enriched brine in porous media: a pore-scale study, Computers and Geosciences 125, p. 19-29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2019.01.009
Hovorka, S.D., n.d. Case study – testing geophysical methods for assessing CO2 migration at the SECARB early test, Cranfield Mississippi (Draft, Under Review), in: Geophysical Monitoring for Geologic Carbon Storage and Utilization, Geophysical Monograph Series. Wiley, p. 351.
Hovorka, S.D., Lu, J., 2019. Field Observations of Geochemical Response to CO2 Injection at the Reservoir Scale, in: Science of Carbon Storage in Deep Saline Formations. Elsevier, pp. 33–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812752-0.00003-4
Min, B., Sun, A.Y., Wheeler, M.F., Jeong, H., 2018. Utilization of multiobjective optimization for pulse testing dataset from a CO2-EOR/sequestration field. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 170, 244–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2018.06.035
Prentice, Sarah, 2019, The Effect of Methane and Fluid Geometry on CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, University of Texas at Austin: Master Thesis
Vasco, Donald & Alfi, Masoud & A. Hosseini, Seyyed & Zhang, Rui & Daley, Thomas & Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan & Hovorka, Susan, 2019, The seismic response to injected carbon dioxide: Comparing observations to estimates based upon fluid flow modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. doi: 10.1029/2018JB016429.
Bakhshian, S., Hosseini, S.A., Development of a parallel pore-scale fluid flow simulator with application to geological storage of CO2. TACC symposium. September 2018.
Hosseini, S.A., Bakhshian, S., The Impact of Wettability Heterogeneity on Multiphase Flow in Realistic Rock Models. AGU Fall Meeting, December 2018.
Hosseini, S. A., Alfi, M., Nicot, J.-P., and Nuñez-López, V., 2018, Analysis of CO2 storage mechanisms at a CO2-EOR site, Cranfield, Mississippi: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, v. 8, p. 469-482, http://doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1754
Dashtian, H., Bakhshian, S., Hosseini, S.A., and J. P. Nicot, 2018, Convection-diffusion-reaction of CO2-enriched brine in porous media: A pore-scale study, Computer & Geoscience, 125, 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2019.01.009
Pan, L., Doughty, C., Freifeld, B, 2018, How to sustain a CO2-thermosiphon in a partially saturated geothermal reservoir: Lessons learned from field experiment and numerical modeling Geothermics volume 71, pp. 274 – 293
Romanak, K. D., Tim Dixon, and Essandoh-Yeddu, J., 2018, Sharing Experience and Stimulating Interest in CCS in Developing Countries Using UNFCCC Funding Mechanisms.: SSRN, 4th Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Conference Melbourne, p. 21-26.
Soltanian MR, Amooie MA, Cole DR, Darrah TH, Graham DE, Pfiffner SM, Phelps TJ, Moortgat J (2018) Impacts of Methane on Carbon Dioxide Storage in Brine Formations. Groundwater 56(2):176-186. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwat.12633
Soltanian MR, Amooie MA, Cole D, Graham D, Pfiffner S, Phelps T, Moortgat J (2018) Transport of perfluorocarbon tracers in the Cranfield Geological Carbon Sequestration Project. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 8(4):650-671. https://doi.org/doi:10.1002/ghg.1786
Anderson, J. S., K. D. Romanak, C. Yang, J. Lu, and S. D. Hovorka, 2017, Gas source attribution techniques to assess leakage at geologic CO2 storage sites: evaluating a CO2 and CH4 soil gas anomaly at the Cranfield CO2-EOR site. Chemical Geology, v. 454, p. 93-104. doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2017.02.024
Rinehart AJ, Dewers TA, Broome ST, and Eichhubl P. 2016. Effects of CO2 on mechanical variability and constitutive behavior of the Lower Tuscaloosa Formation, Cranfield Injection Site, USA. Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 53. 305-318. doi: 10.1016/j.ijggc201608013
Romanak, K., C. Yang, R. Darvari, 2017, Towards a method for leakage quantification and remediation monitoring in the near-surface at terrestrial CO2 geologic storage sites. Energy Procedia, 114, 3855-3862, ISSN 1876-6102, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1517
Yang, C., Jamison, K., Xue, L., Dai, Z., Hovorka, S. D., Fredin, L., and Treviño, R. H., 2017, Quantitative assessment of soil CO2 concentration and stable carbon isotope for leakage detection at geological carbon sequestration sites: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, v. 7, no. 4, p. 680-691, http://doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1679
Yang, C., K. D. Romanak, R. C. Reedy, S. D. Hovorka, R. H. Trevino, 2017, Soil gas dynamics monitoring at a CO2-EOR site for leakage detection. Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources. doi: 10.1007/s40948-017
Alfi, M. Hosseini, S.A, 2016, Integration of reservoir simulation, history matching, and 4D seismic for CO2-EOR and storage at Cranfield, Mississippi, USA; Fuel 175, 116-128
Alfi, M. Hosseini, S.A., Shakiba, M., 2016 Effectiveness of 4D Seismic data to monitor CO2 Plume in Cranfield CO2-EOR Project, Carbon Management Technology Conference
Commer, M., Doetsch, J., Dafflon, B., Wu., Y. Daley, T. M., Hubbard, S. S., 2016, time-lapse 3-D electrical resistance tomography inversion for crosswell monitoring of dissolved and supercritical CO2 flow at two field sites: Escatawpa and Cranfield Mississippi, USA, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 49 (2016) 297–311, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.03.020
Hannis, Sarah, Lu, Jiemin, Hovorka, S.D., Kirk, Karen, Romanak, Katherine, Pearce, Jonathan, 2016. CO2 storage in depleted or depleting oil and gas fields: What can we learn from existing projects? 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT-13, 14-18 November 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland
Hovorka, Susan D., 2016, Assessment of low probability material impacts: 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT-13, 14-18 November 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland
Hovorka, Susan D., 2016, Monitoring after closure; a case of the horse already out of the barn: 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT-13, 14-18 November 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland
Freifeld, Barry, Pan, Lehua, Doughty, Christine, Zakim, Steven, hart, Kate, and Hostler, Steve, 2016, Demonstration of geothermal energy production using carbon dioxide as a working fluid at the SECARB Cranfield site, Cranfield, Mississippi, Proceedings, 41st Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, February 22-24, 2016 SGP-TR-209. https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/db/GeoConf/papers/SGW/2016/Freifeld.pdf
Islam, A., Sun, A. Y., and Lu, J., 2016, Simulating in-zone chemistry changes from injection time to longer periods of CO2 storage: Environmental Earth Sciences, v. 75:1346, 11 p., http://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6153-9
Kowalsky, M. B.; Doetsch, J.; Commer, M.; Finsterle, S.;Doughty, C.; Zhou, Q.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Birkholzer, J.; Daley, T. 2016 Coupled Inversion of Hydrological and Geophysical Data for Improved Prediction of Subsurface CO2 Migration; NRAP-TRS-III-004-2016; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2016; p 56.
Romanak, K. D., Yang, Changbing, Darvari, Roxana, 2016, Towards a method for leakage quantification and remediation monitoring in the near-surface; 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT-13, 14-18 November 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland
Takagishi, Makiko Hashimoto, Tsutomu, Toshioka, Testua, Horikawa, Shigeo, Kusunose, Kinichiro, Xue, Ziqiu, Hovorka, Susan D. Optimization Study of Microseismic Monitoring System at the CO2 Injection Site – Lessons Learnt from Monitoring Experiment at the Cranfield Site, M. S., U. S. A., 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT-13, 14-18 November 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland
Soltanian, M., Amooie, M. A., Cole, D. R., Graham, D. E., Hosseini, S. A., Hovorka, S. D., Pfiffner, S. M., Phelps, T. J., and Moortgat, J., 2016, Simulating the Cranfield geological carbon sequestration project with high-resolution static models and an accurate equation of state: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, v. 54, p. 282-296, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.10.002
Sun, A. Y., Lu, J., Freifeld, B. M., Hovorka, S. D., and Islam, A., 2016, Using pulse testing for leakage detection in carbon storage reservoirs: A field demonstration: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, v. 46, p. 215-227, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.01.015
Yang, X., and C. R. Carrigan, 2016, Deep monitoring of CO2 plumes using electrical resistivity tomography. 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies. 14–18 November, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2 Pages, https://az659834.vo.msecnd.net/eventsairwesteuprod/production-ieaghg-public/44dc58b10d1843e689a9bf1f697a4d12
Carter, R. W., 2015 Fluid characterization at the Cranfield CO2 injection site: Quantitiative seismic interpretation from rock-physics modeling and seismic inversion: University of Texas at Austin PHd dissertation, 154 p. OCLC number 900468097
Costard, Lucie and Paine J.G., 2015, Characterizing initial-state conductivity distribution at a CO2 injection site with airborne, surface, and borehole electromagnetic induction methods, Environmental Geosciences, v. 22, no. 3 (September 2015), pp. 75–83 75
Dewers, T, Rinehart, A, Major, j. Lee, S. Reber, J., Eichhubal, Wheeler, M, Hayman, Nick, Ilgen, A. Bishop, J., Balhoff, M. Espinoza, Martinez, M., and Yoon, H., 2015, Geomechanics and research challenges for geologic carbon storage, EFRC meeting October 26027, 2016 Washington DC, http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1331928
Györe, Domokos, Stuart, F. M., Gilfillan, S.M.V., and Waldron, 2015, tracing injected CO2 in the Cranfield enhanced oil recovery field (MS, USA) using He, Ne and Ar isotopes, Interantional Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 42, 554-561. Doi/10.101016
Kim, S., and Hosseini, S. A., 2015, Hydro-thermo-mechanical analysis during injection of cold fluid into a geologic formation: International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, v.77, p. 220-236, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2015.04.010
Lu, J., Ruppel, S. C., and Rowe, H. D., 2015, Organic matter pores and oil generation in the Tuscaloosa marine shale: AAPG Bulletin, v. 99, no. 2, p. 333-357, http://doi.org/10.1306/08201414055
Jenkins, C., Chadwick, A., and Hovorka, S. D., 2015, The state of the art in monitoring and verification--Ten years on: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, v. 40, p. 312-349, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.05.009
Oldenburg, C. M., Nicot, J.-P., Jordan, P. D., Zhang, Y., Pan, L., Houseworth, J. E., Meckel, T., Carr, D. L., and Bryant, S. L., 2015, Chapter 32: Health, safety, and environmental risk assessment of geologic carbon sequestration: Overview of the certification framework, example application, and selected special studies 2010-2014, in Karl F. Gerdes, ed., Carbon dioxide capture for storage in deep geologic formations--Results from the CO2 Capture Project, Volume 4: CCS Technology Development and Demonstration Results (2009-2014): UK, CPL Press, p.569-592.
Steefel, C. I., Beckingham, L. E., and Landrot, G., 2015, Micro-continuous approaches for modeling pore-scale geochemical processes; Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, v. 80, p. 217-247.
Sun, A. Y., Lu, J., and Hovorka, S. D., 2015, A harmonic pulse testing method for leakage detection in deep subsurface storage formations: Water Resources Research, v. 51, no. 6, p. 4263-4281, http://doi.org/10.1002/2014WR016567
Yang, C., Hovorka, S. D., Treviño, R. H., and Delgado-Alonso, J., 2015, Integrated framework for assessing impacts of CO2 leakage on groundwater quality and monitoring-network efficiency: case study at a CO2 enhanced oil recovery site: Environmental Science &Technology, v. 49, p. 8887-8898, http://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b01574
Yang, C., Treviño, R. H., Hovorka, S. D., and Delgado-Alonso, J., 2015, Semi-analytical approach to reactive transport of CO2 leakage into aquifers at carbon sequestration sites: Greenhouse Gases Science and Technology, v. 5, no. 6, p. 786-801, http://doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1527
Carter, R. W., & Spikes, K. T. (2014). Integrating rock-physics models and 3D VSP data to model injected CO2 and porosity at Cranfield field, Mississippi, USA. In 4th EAGE CO2 Geological Storage Workshop 2014: Demonstrating Storage Integrity and Building Confidence in CCS (pp. 151-155). European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers, EAGE.
Carter, R. W., Spikes, K. T., and Hess, T., 2014, Inversion of multicomponent 3D vertical seismic profile data for porosity and CO2 saturation at the Cranfield injection site, Cranfield, MS; Interpretation: SEG 2 (2): SE77-SE89 (2014)
Daley, Thomas, Hendrickson, Joel H and Queen, John, 2014, Monitoring CO2 Storage at Cranfield, Mississippi with Time-Lapse Offset VSP – Using Integration and Modeling to Reduce Uncertainty. Energy Procedia. 63. 4240-4248. 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.459
Mukhopadhyay, S., Doughty, C., Bacon, D., Li, J., Wei, L., Yamamoto, H., Gasda, S., Hosseini, S. A., Nicot, J.-P., and Birkholzer, J. T., 2015, The Sim-SEQ Project: comparison of selected flow models for the S-3 site: Transport in Porous Media, v. 108, p. 207-231, http://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-014-0361-0
Nuñez-López, V., Muñoz-Torres, J., and Zeidouni, M., 2014, Temperature monitoring using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology: Energy Procedia: Elsevier, v. 63, p. 3984-3991, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.428
Rinehart, Alex, Dewers, T., Broome, Scott, Newell, Pania, 2014, Geomechanical variability within the D-E member of the Lower Tuscaloosa Formation supporting the SECARB Phase III injection Program, Document ID: SAND2014-20476C
Takagishhi, M., Hashimoto, T., Horikawa, S., Kusunose, K., and Hovorka, S. D., 2014, Microseismic monitoring at the large-scale CO2 injection site, Cranfield, MS, U.S.A.: Energy Procedia, v. 63, p. 4411-4417, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.476
Yang, C., Hovorka, S. D., Young, M. H., and Treviño, R. H., 2014, Geochemical sensitivity to CO2 leakage: detection in potable aquifers at carbon sequestration sites: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, v. 4, p. 384-399, http://doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1406
Yang, C., Delgado-Alonso, J., Hovorka, S. D., Mickler, P., Treviño, R. H., and Phillips, S., 2014, Monitoring dissolved CO2 in groundwater for CO2 leakage detection in a shallow aquifer: Energy Procedia, v. 63, p. 4209-4215, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.456
Zeidouni, M., Nicot, J. -P., and Hovorka, S. D., 2014, Monitoring above-zone temperature variations associated with CO2 and brine leakage from a storage aquifer: Environmental Earth Sciences, v. 72, no. 5, p. 1733-1747, http://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3077-0
Ajo-Franklin, J.B., Peterson, J, Doetsch, J., Daley, T.M., 2013, High-resolution characterization of a CO2 plume using crosswell seismic tomography: Cranfield, MS, USA., Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.12.018
Butsch, Robert, Brown, A. L., Bryans, Bradley, Kolb, Conrad, Hovorka, Susan, 2013, Integration of well-based subsurface monitoring technologies: Lessons learned at SECARB study, Cranfield, MS, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control
Carrigan, C.R., Yang, Xianjin, LaBrecque, D. J., Larson, Dennis, Freeman, David, Ramirez, A. L., Daily, William, Aines, Roger, Newmark, Robin, Friedmann, Julio, Hovorka, Susan, 2013., Electrical resistance tomographic monitoring of CO2 movement in deep geologic reservoirs. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.04.016
Carter, R.W., Spikes, K.T., 2013, Sensitivity analysis of Tuscaloosa sandstones to CO2 saturation, Cranfield field, Cranfield, MS. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.01.006
Choi, J.-W., Nicot, J.-P. Hossieni, S. A., Cift, S. J., and Hovorka, S. D., 2013, CO2 recycling accounting and EOR operation scheduling to assist in storage capacity assessment at a U.S. gulf coast depleted reservoir. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.01.033
Daley, T.M., Henderickson, Joel, and Queen, in press, Analysis of Time-Lapse Offset VSP For Monitoring of CO2 Storage at Cranfield, MS, SEG.
Delshad, Mojdeh, Kong, Xianhui, Tavakoli, Reza, Hosseini, S. A. Wheeler, M. A., 2013., Modeling and simulation of carbon sequestration at Cranfield incorporating new physical models. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.03.019
Ditkof, J., Caspar E, Pevzner, R., Urosevic, M., Meckel, T. A., Hovorka, S. D., 2013, Time lapse seismic signal analysis for EOR and CCS site, Cranfield field, Mississippi, Geophysics.
Ditkof, Julie N., 2013, Time-lapse seismic monitoring for enhanced oil recovery and carbon capture and storage field site at Cranfield field, Mississippi, University of Texas Jackson School of Geosciences Master’s thesis; http://hdl.handle.net/2152/23200
Ditkof, J., Caspari, E., Pevzner, R., Urosevic, M., Meckel, T., and Hovorka, S. D., 2013, Time-lapse seismic signal analysis for enhanced oil recovery at Cranfield CO2 sequestration site, Cranfield field, Mississippi: Interpretation, v. 1, no. 2, p. T157-T166, http://doi.org/10.1190/INT-2013-0056.1
Dodds, Kevin, Krahenbuhl, Richard, Reitz, Anya, Li, Yaoguo, Hovorka, Susan, 2013, Evaluation of time lapse borehole gravity for CO2 plume detection SECARB Cranfield. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013)
Doetsch, Joseph, Kowalsky, M. A. Doughty, Christine, Finsterle, Stefan, Ajo-Franklin, J. B., Carigan, C. R., Yang, Xianjin, Hovorka, S. D., Daley, T. M., 2013, Constraining CO2 simulations by coupled modeling and inversion of electrical resistance and gas composition data. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.04.011
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Hosseini, S.A., Lashgari, Hamidreza, Choi, J.-W., Nicot, J.-P., Ju, Jiemin, Hovorka, S. D, 2013., Static and dynamic reservoir modeling for geological CO2 sequestration at Cranfield, Mississippi, U.S.A. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.11.009
Hovorka, S. D., 2013, Three-million-metric-ton-monitored injection at the SECARB Cranfield project—project update: Energy Procedia (2013), pp. 6412-6423 DOI information: 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.571
Hovorka, S.D., Meckel, T. A., and Treviño, R. T, 2013, Monitoring a large-volume injection at Cranfield, Mississippi—Project design and recommendations. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.03.021
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Kim, Seunghee, and Hosseini, S. A., 2013, Above-zone pressure monitoring and geomechanical analysis of a field scale CO2 injection, Cranfield Mississippi, Greenhouse Gases Science and Technology, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1388
Kordi, Masoumeh, 2013, Characterization and prediction of reservoir quality in chlorite-coated sandstones: evidence from the Late Cretaceous Lower Tuscaloosa Formation at Cranfield Field, Mississippi, U.S.A., PhD Dissertation, the University of Texas at Austin, 193p.
Landrot G, Ajo-Franklin J, Yang L, Cabrini S, Steefel CI (2012) Measurement of accessible reactive surface area in a sandstone, with application to CO2 mineralization. Chem Geol 318–319:113–125
Lu, Jiemin. Kordi, Masoumeh, Hovorka, S.D., Meckel, T.A., Christopher, C.A, 2013., Reservoir characterization and complications for trapping mechanisms at Cranfield CO2 injection site. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.10.007
Meckel, T.A., Zeidouni, Mehdi, Hovorka, S. D., Hosseini, S.A., 2013, Assessing sensitivity to well leakage from three years of continuous reservoir pressure monitoring during CO2 injection at Cranfield, MS, USA. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.01.019
Nicot, J.-P., Oldenburg, C. M., Houseworth, J. E., Choi, J.- W, 2013 Analysis of potential leakage pathways at the Cranfield, MS, U.S.A., CO2 sequestration site. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.10.011
Nicot, J. -P., Hovorka, S. D., and Meckel, L. D., III, 2013, Editorial: Midproject assessment of the SECARB Early Test at Cranfield, Mississippi, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control (Special Issue), v. 18, 343-344.
Tao, Qing, Bryant, S. L., Meckel, T. A., 2013., Modeling above-zone measurements of pressure and temperature for monitoring CCS sites. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.08.011
Verma, Sandeep, Oaks, C.S., Chugunov, N., Ramakrishnan, T. S., Hosseini, Hovorka, S.. 2013, Reservoir fluid monitoring in carbon dioxide sequestration at Cranfield, Energy Procedia, 37, p. 4344-4355.
Yang Changbing, Mickler, P. J , Reed Robert, Scanlon, B. R., Romanak, K. D., Jean-Philippe Nicot J.-P., Hovorka, S. D., Trevino, R. H., Larson, Toti, 2013, Single-well push-pull test for assessing potential impacts of CO2 leak-age on groundwater quality in a shallow Gulf Coast aquifer in Cranfield, Mississippi. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.12.030
Zhang, R., Ghoshe, Ranjana, Sen, M. K, Srinivansan, Sanjay, 2013, Time-lapse surface seismic inversion with thin bed resolution for monitoring CO2 sequestration: A case study from Cranfield, Mississippi. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.08.015
Zhang, Rui, Song, Xiaolei, Fromel, Sergey, Sen, Mrinal, Srinivasan, Sanjey, 2013, Time-lapse pre-stack seismic data registration and inversion for CO2 sequestration study at Cranfield
Coleman, S. H., 2012, The reservoir performance and impact from using large-volume, intermittent, anthropogenic CO2 for enhanced oil recovery, University of Texas at Austin Masters thesis.
Lu, J., Cook, P. J., Hosseini, S. A., Yang, C., Romanak, K. D., Zhang, T., Freifeld, B. M., Smyth, R. C., Zeng, H., and Hovorka, S. D., 2012, Complex fluid flow revealed by monitoring CO2 injection in a fluvial formation: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 117, B03208, doi:10.1029/2011JB008939.
Lu, Jiemin, Kharaka, Y. K., Thordsen, J. J., Horita, J., Karamalidis, A., Griffith, C., Hakala, J. A., Ambats, G., Cole, D. R., Phelps, T. J., Manning, M. A., Cook, P. J., and Hovorka, S. D., 2012, CO2‒rock‒brine interactions in Lower Tuscaloosa Formation at Cranfield CO2 sequestration site, Mississippi, U.S.A.: Chemical Geology, v. 291, p. 269‒277.
Mukhopadhyay, S., Birkholzer, J. T., Nicot, J. -P., and Hosseini, S. A., 2012, A model comparison initiative for a CO2 injection field test: an introduction to Sim-SEQ: Environmental Earth Science, v. 67, p. 601‒611.
Nuñez-López, V., and Hovorka, S. D., 2012, Subsurface monitoring of large-scale CO2 injection at SECARB's Phase-III Cranfield site, in Carbon Management Technology Conference, 7-9 February, Orlando, Florida, USA, DOI: 10.7122/151504-MS
Hosseini, S. A., Mathias, S. A., and Javadpour, F., 2012, Analytical model for CO2 injection into brine aquifers containing residual CH4: Transport in Porous Media, v. 94, p. 795‒815.
Hosseini, S. A., and Nicot, J. -P., 2012, Numerical modeling of a multiphase water‒oil‒CO2 system using a water‒CO2 system: application to the far field of a U.S. Gulf Coast reservoir: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, v. 10, p. 88‒99.
Hovorka, S. D., 2012, In quest of robust and commercial CO2 monitoring; Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol, 2: 145–147. doi: 10.1002/ghg.1290
Mathias, S. A., Gluyas, J. G., Gonzalez Martinez de Miguel, G. J., and Hosseini, S. A., 2011, Role of partial miscibility on pressure buildup due to constant rate injection of CO2 into closed and open brine aquifers: Water Resources Research, v. 47, W12525, doi:10.1029/2011WR011051
Romanak, K. D., Bennett, P. C., Yang, C., and Hovorka, S. D., 2012, Process-based approach to CO2 leakage detection by vadose zone gas monitoring at geologic CO2 storage sites: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 39, L15405, doi:10.1029/2012GL052426.
Yang, Changbing, Romanak, Katherine, Holt, R. M., Linder, J., Smith, L., Treviño, R. H., Roecker, Frank, Xia, Y., and Rickerts, J., 2012, Large volume of CO2 injection at the Cranfield, early field test of the SECARB Phase III: near-surface monitoring, in Carbon Management Technology Conference, 7–9 February, Orlando, Florida, USA, SPE 163075) DOI: 10.7122/151428-MS.
Zhang, Rui; Ghosh, Ranjana; Sen, Mrinal K; and Srinivasan, Sanjay Time-lapse surface seismic inversion with thin bed resolution for monitoring CO2 sequestration: A case study from Cranfield, Mississippi, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 9 (2012).
Chang, K.-W., Hesse, M. A., Nicot, J. -P., and Hovorka, S. D., 2011, Effects of adjacent mud rocks on CO2 injection pressure: model case based on a typical U.S. Gulf Coast salt diapir field under injection, in Energy Procedia, v. 4, Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies GHGT10, September 19‒23, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 4567‒4574.
Choi, Jong-Won, Nicot, J. -P., Meckel, Timothy, and Hovorka, S. D., 2011, Numerical modeling of CO2 injection into a typical U.S. Gulf Coast anticline structure, in Energy Procedia, v. 4, Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies GHGT10, September 19‒23, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 3486‒3493.
Hovorka, S. D., Meckel, Timothy, Treviño, R. H., Lu, Jiemin, Nicot, J. -P., Choi, Jong-Won, Freeman, D., Cook, P. G., Daley, Tom, Ajo-Franklin, J., Freifeld, Barry, Doughty, C. A., Carrigan, C. R., La Brecque, D., Kharaka, Yousif, Thordsen, J. J., Phelps, Tommy, Yang, Changbing, Romanak, Katherine, Zhang, Tongwei, Holt, R. M., Lindler, J. S., and Butsch, R. J., 2011, Monitoring a large volume CO2 injection: year two results from SECARB project at Denbury's Cranfield, Mississippi, USA, in Energy Procedia, v. 4, Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies GHGT10, September 19‒23, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 3478‒3485.
Lu, Jiemin, Milliken, K., Reed, R. M., and Hovorka, S. D., 2011, Diagenesis and sealing capacity of the middle Tuscaloosa mudstone at the Cranfield carbon dioxide injection site, Mississippi: Environmental Geosciences, v. 18, no. 1, p. 35–53.
Joy, C. A., 2011, the effects of pressure variation and chemical reactions on the elasticity of the lower Tuscaloosa sandstone of the Cranfield Field Mississippi, The University of Texas at Austin Masters Thesis, 97 p., OCLC number 755810713
Meckel, T., Hovorka, S. D., and Ambrose, W. A., 2011, Geologic factors controlling CO2 storage capacity and permanence: Exploration and Production, v. 8, no. 2, p. 22 and 24
Ajo-Franklin, J. and Daley, T. 2010, Using Optimal Design to Improve CO2 Sequestration Monitoring Strategies Geologic Carbon Sequestration Site Integrity: Characterization and Monitoring Workshop, Columbus OH, June. 7-8, 2010.
Coleman, S. H., 2010, The geologic and economic analysis of stacked CO2 storage systems: a carbon management strategy for the Texas Gulf Coast, University of Texas at Austin Masters thesis
Daley, T.M., Ajo-Franklin, J.B., Doughty, C., Hovorka, S., 2010, Seismic monitoring and reservoir modeling at SECARB’s Phase-III Cranfield Site, Ninth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration, Pittsburgh, May 10-13, 2010.
Hovorka, S. D., 2010, EOR as sequestration – geoscience perspective: white paper for MIT Energy Institute-BEG Symposium on the Role of EOR in Accelerating Deployment of CCS
Lu, Jiemin, Milliken, K., Reed, R. M., and Hovorka, S. D., 2010, Diagenesis and sealing capacity of the middle Tuscaloosa mudstone at the Cranfield carbon dioxide injection site, Mississippi: Environmental Geosciences, v. 18, no. 1, p. 1–19.
Meckel, T., 2010, Chapter 7. Capillary seals for trapping carbon dioxide (CO2) in underground reservoirs, in Maroto-Valer, M. M., ed., Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage technology: Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy: Number 16, Volume 2: Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage and utilisation, p. 185–202.
Solano, S.V., 2010, Sensitivity analysis of carbon dioxide storage in saline aquifers in the presence of a gas cap, University of Texas at Austin Masters thesis,
Hovorka, S. D., 2009, Put it back, in Laubach, S. E., and Tinker, S. W., eds., 2009, Earth’s art: celebrating the Centennial of the Bureau of Economic Geology, 1909–2009: The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, p. 130–131.
Hovorka, S. D., Choi, J. -W., Meckel, T. A., Treviño, R. H., Zeng, H., Kordi, M., Wang, F. P., and Nicot, J. -P., 2009, Comparing carbon sequestration in an oil reservoir to sequestration in a brine formation—field study, in Energy Procedia (v. 1, no. 1), Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies GHGT9, November 16–20, Washington D.C., p. 2051–2056.
Hovorka, S. D., Meckel, T. A., Treviño, R. H., Nicot, J. –P., Choi, J. –W., Yang, C., Paine, J., Romanak, K., Lu, J., Zeng, H., and Kordi, M., 2009, Southeast Partnership Early Test Update – Cranfield field, MS: presented at the Eighth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 4-7, 2009.
Nicot, J. P., Choi, Jong-Won, Meckel, Timothy, Chang, C. Y., Hovorka, S. D., and Solano, Silvia, 2009, Results of numerical investigations at SECARB Cranfield, MS field test site, in Eighth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration: DOE/NETL, May 4–7, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 11 p.
Nicot, J. P., Hovorka, S. D., and Choi, J. -W., 2009, Investigation of water displacement following large CO2 sequestration operations, in Energy Procedia (v. 1, no.1), Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies GHGT9, November 16–20, Washington D.C., p. 4411–4418.
Nicot, J. P., Oldenburg, C. M., Bryant, S. L., and Hovorka, S. D., 2009, Pressure perturbations from geologic carbon sequestration: area-of-review boundaries and borehole leakage driving forces, in Energy Procedia (v. 1, no.1), Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies GHGT9, November 16–20, Washington D.C., p. 47–54.
Romanak, K.D., Zhang, T., Yang, C., Gilbert, K., Hovorka, SD, Bennett, P.C., in poster/abstract form, Evaluation of CO2, He, C1-C5 Gaseous Hydrocarbons at an Engineered CO2 Injection, Cranfield, Mississippi.
Last Updated: July 12, 2019