The gradual addition of new material by deposition of sediment carried by wind and waves.
Layer of algae typically found on a tidal flat
Back-island sand dunes
Dunes located on the landward side of barrier island, usually adjacent to the bay margin.
Backshore or backbeach
The upper zone of the shore or beach, lying between the high-water line of mean spring tides and the upper limit of shore-zone processes (edge of dunes, cliff, etc.): it is acted upon by waves or covered by water during exceptionally severe storms or unusually high tides. It is separated from foreshore by the crest of the most seaward berm.
A long, narrow coastal island separated from the mainland by a lagoon or estuary. It commonly has dunes, vegetated zones, and marshy terranes extending lagoonward from the beach.
Area adjacent to the bay or other body of estuarine waters that is influenced by tidal waters
The gently sloping shore of a body of water which is washed by waves or tides.
A low shelf or narrow terrace on the backshore of a beach formed of material deposited by storm waves.
The seaward limit and generally the highest point of a berm on a beach. The crest of the most seaward berm separates the foreshore from the backshore.
A wave that has become so steep that the crest outpaces the body of the wave and collapses into a turbulent mass on shore.
Small dunes formed by the accumulation of wind blown sand on the backshore just seaward of the foredunes and anchored by vegetation. With an adequate sediment supply these mounds could grow larger, become continuous, and form a new foredune system.
Crest (dune or wave)
The highest point on a dune, the highest part of a wave.
One high and one low tide every 24.8 hours
The wearing away of sand by the action of waves and wind.
Of, pertaining to, or formed in an estuary.
A partially enclosed coastal body of water where the tide meets the current of a stream.
The extent of open water wind travels across.
A coastal dune at the landward margin of a beach, more or less completely stabilized by vegetation.
Highest part of foredune.
System of coastal dunes separating the beach from the vegetated barrier flat.
Foreshore or forebeach
The zone of the shore or beach that is regularly covered and uncovered by the rise and fall of the tide.
The tide at its highest: the maximum level reached during a tidal cycle.
A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained surface wind is 64 kt (74 mph or 119 km/hr) or more.
Ocean current caused by the approach of waves to a coast at an angle. It flows parallel to and near to the shore.
Transport of material (sand, shell fragments, etc.) along the coast by longshore currents.
A low sand ridge built mainly by wave action, occurring at some distance from and parallel with the shoreline.
Area of seagrass growth in marine waters.
A tide occurring at the first and third quarters of the moon, when the gravitational pull of the sun opposes that of the moon, and having an unusually small or reduced tide range.
A saturated, poorly drained area, intermittently or permanently flooded with salt water, having aquatic and grasslike vegetation.
An almost vertical slope fronting a berm on a beach or dune caused by wave erosion. It may range in height from several centimeters to a few meters, depending on the character of the wave action and the nature and composition of the beach.
A tide with two high and two low waters every 24.8 hours.
A tide occurring twice each month, at or near the times of new moon and full moon, when the gravitational pull of the sun reinforces that of the moon. It has an unusually large or increased tide range.
An abnormal, sudden rise of sea level along an open coast during a storm, caused primarily by onshore winds, resulting in water piled up against the coast. It is most severe when accompanied by a high tide.
The area bounded by the landward limit of wave uprush and the farthest seaward breaker.
The zone over which water rushes up onto the beach following the breaking of a wave.
An extensive, nearly horizontal barren tract of land that is alternately covered and uncovered by the tide, and consisting of unconsolidated sediment.
Any inlet through which water flows alternately landward with the rising tide and seaward with the falling tide: specifically a natural inlet maintained by tidal currents.
The difference between the level of water at high and low tide.
The rhythmic, alternate rise and fall of the surface of the ocean resulting from the gravitational attraction of the moon (and, of a lesser degree, of the sun) acting unequally on different parts of the rotating earth. Gravity waves.
A warm-core non-frontal synoptic-scale cyclone, originating over tropical or subtropical waters, with organized deep convection and a closed surface wind circulation about a well-defined center. Once formed, a tropical cyclone is maintained by the extraction of heat energy from the ocean at high temperature and heat export at the low temperatures of the upper troposphere.
A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained surface wind speed is 33 kt (38 mph or 62 km/hr) or less.
A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained surface wind speed ranges from 34 kt (39 mph or 63 km/hr) to 63 kt (73 mph or 118 km/hr). Once a tropical cyclone is upgraded to a tropical storm it is given a name.
Trough (dune or wave)
The lowest point on a dune, the lowest part of a wave.
Vegetated barrier flat
A flat, low-relief but bumpy plain that extends from landward of the fore-island dune system to the bay margin on a barrier island, vegetated with grasses and other low vegetation. May have patches of back-island dunes as well as depressions that may host small freshwater ponds and marshes.
Seaward extent of vegetation, usually seaward of the foredunes. Some beaches have many vegetation lines (i.e. one line marking extent of continuous landward vegetation, another marking boundary of a sparsely vegetated area).
Small deltas built on the landward side of a barrier island produced by storm waves breaking over low places and depositing sediment on the back side of the island or in the water body behind the island. It is also the process by which a washover feature is formed.
Channel through which tidal waters can alternately flow landward and seaward on a washover.
An oscillatory movement in a body of water manifested by an alternate rise and fall of the surface.
The vertical distance between a wave’s crest and trough.
The distance between successive wave crests, or other equivalent points.
The time it takes successive wave crests to pass a fixed point.
The line between wet sand and dry sand on the forebeach. Marks highest level of wave swash and is typically associated with the berm crest.
a line of debris left on the backshore following an extremely high water level.